When agents at the US Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) need a chemist’s perspective on fentanyl, they turn to John Casale and Jennifer Mallette. The two scientists run the DEA’s fentanyl profiling program. All the fentanyl seized by the agency comes through their lab to be analyzed, profiled, and potentially linked to other cases. Since starting the project two years ago, the team has processed 1,800 samples of illicit fentanyl and made 59 connections between samples.
Fentanyl, a synthetic opioid, is particularly dangerous because of its potency—it’s up to 50 times stronger than heroin and up to 100 times stronger than morphine. Just two milligrams of pure fentanyl, as much as a few grains of table salt, is a deadly dose for most people. This is causing an unprecedented number of overdose deaths in the United States. To stem this tide, DEA agents need to know as much as possible about the fentanyl they seize.
Chemists’ expertise helps agents
The chemical profiles generated by the project reveal whether fentanyl brought into the lab is connected to any previous DEA cases. Casale and his team pass that information on to the responsible agents. “We’re basically just giving them a lead, and they look and figure out what the connection is,” said Casale. “The agents we’re doing these samples for are ecstatic about it.”
That’s because just knowing that two fentanyl seizures are related is often enough to move a DEA investigation forward. In one case, the lab connected the manufacturer of illicit fentanyl tablets, to a distributor, all the way down to tablets seized on the streets. “It does make an impact,” said Casale, “and investigations are recognized based at least in part on the work that we do.”
Fentanyl seized by the DEA is analyzed down to its atoms
The first thing the chemists do when a sample is brought to their lab is determine how much fentanyl is actually in it. Because fentanyl is so powerful, the samples are mostly made up of other compounds. Typically, fentanyl smuggled into the US across the Mexican border is five to seven percent fentanyl. “We do see direct shipments coming from China that are very high purity, but those are rare,” says Casale.
The analysis goes down to the atomic level—fentanyl’s isotopic signatures vary depending on the ingredients used to produce it. The team also examine what components other than fentanyl are in the sample and find traces of the solvents used in the manufacturing process.